Rugby Union, also known as scrum or line up rugby, is an all-out contact team sport which originally originated in England in the mid-nineteenth century. Based on running with the football in each hand, it is the only code of rugby to have its own set of rules. The game is traditionally played on a rectangular field, but due to advancements in playing equipment, the layout can vary from a narrow diamond pattern to a flat rectangle. A standard rugby uniform consists of short, loose shorts, long-sleeved jerseys, and a head protector.
Although rugby union started out as a game for amateurs, the sport has steadily developed over the years, becoming more professional and demanding of both skills and tactics. In particular, skillful handling of the rugby ball is essential, since it is used mainly as a passing tool and is often played with one hand. Passing skills depend largely on the player’s ability to accurately position the ball at a precise point between the goal line and the posts; kicking the ball is mostly a skill held by the center. A successful conversion is worth a point to the team scoring the most points, and the losing team receives one point for every unanswered point.
Rugby Union is played in three phases: attack, defense, and counter attack. Each phase contains various strategies for achieving points. For instance, if a team wants to score five points against their opponents, a series of offensive or defensive tricks is usually employed before kick-off to try to draw the other team to make mistakes. If the opposing team successfully manages to defend their goal, the score will be increased for the home team. If a side successfully scores a goal, the opposing team loses one point and receives one point for the successfully defended goal. A team only loses one point when they are not able to defend effectively, and they gain one point for every successful defense.